Friday, September 30, 2011

Interesting English-French pairs (5)

stage n. / étage  m.  [é-ta-je] (same form, origin but different meanings)
a point/period in development - from Old French estage (derived from old verb ester - to stand/to be - + suffix -age
French étage m.  means storey, layer
French also has the noun stage m. [sta-je] (from Latin stagium) but it means "training period/internship (in a career development)"
stage, a platform to perform, is called scène f. [sè-ne] in French
stage, in cycling for instance, is said étape f.  [é-ta-pe] (from Dutch stapel)

stable n. / étable f.  [é-ta-ble](same form, origin and meaning)
a building for horse or cattle - from Old French estable - from Latin stabula, plural form of stabulum n. (standing place), mistaken for a feminine form.
étable f. is actually for the lodging of cattle (cows) where as horses are kept in an écurie f. [é-ku-ri]
establish v. / établir v.  [é-ta-blir] (vous établissez)
to found, to install - from Old French establiss- (from v. estalir) - from Latin  stabilire « to maintain stable, support».
establishment n. / établissement m. [é-ta-bli-se-men]

stomach n. / estomac m. [es-to-ma]
organ of the human body - both words come from Latin stomachus (same meaning)
estomaquer vb.  means to stun, astonish greatly (like giving a blow in the stomach)

strait / étroit adj.  [é-trwa]  (narrow) 

narrow passage of water - from Old French estreit (narrow) - from Latin strictus (tight, narrow)
a strait in French is called a dédroit m. [dé-trwa]  - from Latin districtus adj. (linked to, enchained to)
The American city of Detroit (river and city) was called the 'city of the strait' by the French.

stay v.  / être v. [è-tre]  verb to be in French

to remain, to stand - from Middle French estai- (stem of ester, to stay or stand) from Latin stare (to stand)

extend v. / étendre v.  [é-ten-dre]  (Same form, origin and meaning)

to stretch out - both are from Latin extendere (ex- + tend)

espouse v. / épouser v.  [é-pou-zé]

to adopt, to embrace (an idea) - from Old French espouser v. (to marry) - from Latin sponsare  - French kept both meanings (See spouse / époux)

vanish v. / (s')évanouir vb. [é-va-nwir]  (vous vous évanouissez)

to disappear - from Old French  esvaniss- (verb esvanir to faint - to disappear) - from Latin e(x)vanire (related to évanescence) 

ticket n. / étiquette f. [é-ti-kè-te

slip for admission to a place - from Old French etiquet (verb  estiquier « to stick in » + suffix -et )
English sticker n. is related to étiquette through Latin instigare (to spur on) - and Germanic (Old norse stik - High German stechen) Same common Indo-european stem.
An adhesive label in French is called autocollant [o-to-ko-lan] (self-sticking) 
French étiquette f. means label (indicating price or characteristics of a product)
Ticket m. [ti-ké] came back to French with the same meaning  as "ticket".